The Basics of DMR Digital Mobile Radio


“The nice thing about standards is there are so many to choose from.”  Consider the ham radio contenders, such as DStar, Fusion, FreeDV, some old offerings from Alinco & AOR and so on. None of them are compatible!

Figuring out what digital voice standard you’ll go with can be daunting. For business & private radio, DMR followed by NXDN are the two most popular choices. In the ham radio arena, the picture is a little less clear. DStar took an early lead, but Yaesu is keen to take market share with their Fusion offering.

Personally, I think DMR will take the lead in ham radio. This is helped in no small part by the ready availability of DMR radio equipment at prices that rival traditional analogue two way radio, and that one of the biggest names in two way radio, Motorola, are throwing their weight behind DMR.

There are three “tiers” or levels of functionality for DMR systems.

Tier 1: The simplest form of DMR is Tier 1, which is mainly used for simplex communications, with no repeaters. Human voice is digitally sampled and compressed with the AMBE+2 codec, and then transmitted in this digital form to another radio.

Tier 2: Things start to get a bit more complicated here. With Tier 2 DMR, repeaters are used in a TDMA arrangement, with two “timeslots. This means that two completely separate radio transmissions can be going through the repeater at the same time; each radio takes turns in transmitting in short 27.5 millisecond bursts. In addition, radios can be set to logical closed groups called ’talk groups’, which you can think of these as ’virtual channels’. Repeaters can be linked via the internet to form networks that can be as small as just two repeaters, or thousands of repeaters across the world. Again, the AMBE+2 codec is used to turn speech into compressed data for transmission. All amateur radio DMR systems are Tier 2, as are many business / commercial radio DMR systems.

Tier 3: This is effectively a trunked radio system on top of Tier 2. A pool of frequencies are used to carry the TDMA transmissions. This is used by more complex or larger networks for big businesses and commercial radio users.

The advantages of DMR:

So why go to DMR, when plain old analogue FM works perfectly well? DMR has the advantage that it four times more efficient when it comes to spectrum usage. For one 25 kHz analogue FM channel, you could fit four DMR transmissions. Not only that, but DMR offers flexible calling features – you can call one person, a group of people, or everyone in your group all at once. Not every DMR network supports it, but sending of data and short messages is also possible. DMR is also designed to be easy to network, with connections using IP, so creating wide coverage areas using a network of DMR repeaters is already built-in; you can cover your city or cover the entire country all at once! Yet another advantage is because a DMR transmitter is only turned on about half the time due to it transmitting in bursts, battery life is longer.

DMR Jargon:

Color codes: Every DMR transmission uses a “color code” which is very similar to CTCSS or PL tones in the analogue radio world. On a repeater or simplex frequency, every radio must use the same color code to be able to communicate together. The main use for color codes is for where two repeater coverage areas on the same frequency may overlap, different color codes are used to ensure each radio accesses the correct repeater.

Timeslot: For Tier 2 and 3 systems, a timeslot is a slice of time, about 30ms long, that a radio can transmit in, or receive in. There are two timeslots per frequency, and you need to have your radio configured for the right color code for the repeater, the correct timeslot and correct talkgroup for you to be able to hear anything.

Zones: This is simply a collection of channels & talkgroups, all grouped together in one “zone” or bank. A radio user can switch zones to access a different lot of channels & talkgroups that they may wish to use. Typically a zones are divided into repeaters for different areas, so you might have one zone for the west side of a city, and another covering the east side of the city – but there’s nothing to say that you must set up a zone that way.

Code Plug: This is a Motorola term that has stuck over the years, and in the DMR context means a complete configuration file of channels, talkgroups, zones, contacts etc. for a radio. The code plug can be saved to computer disc, and is used to program a radio to give it the functionality a user requires.

CPS: Another Motorola term, meaning Customer Program Software. Simply put, this is the software you’d use to create a “code plug” and configure your radio.

Hotspot: A small box that connects to the internet and acts like your own personal low power DMR repeater, useful if you’re not in range of a DMR repeater to access. You can even take them with you and use your cell / mobile phone wireless data to connect the hotspot to the internet and be able to use DMR anywhere you get cellular signal. Most hotspots are multi-mode, handling DMR, DStar, Yaesu Fusion, and P25 as well. ZUMspot, Jumbospot, Openspot, MMDVM etc. are all examples of hotspots that you can buy or build yourself.  For a little over $100, you can build your own with a Pi Zero W, a DMR “Hat” and a 16GB SD card. You can find DIY plans for these all over the internet.

The use of DMR in radio hobbyist circles falls into two categories: ham / amateur radio and scanning receiver use.

Ham radio: Hams have long taken advantage of surplus, second hand, or even new commercial radio equipment and re-purposed it for their own use, and DMR equipment is no exception. Worldwide, DMR enabled and connected repeaters are appearing and are interconnected to provide a huge linked network spanning the entire globe. Depending on the talk group selected, you could be communicating just across town, across your region, across the entire country, and some groups even cover the whole world. Motorola DMR equipment is frequently used, but increasingly the cheaper units, in particular TYT, have increased the affordability and availability of DMR equipment to the mass market. In some cases, you can get on air to the DMR scene for less than a hundred dollars! If you are interested in a good DMR radio with GPS built in, you should check out the Retevis HD1 DMR radio.  It costs around $200 dollars and puts out 10 watts!  A little pricier than the other entry level radios, but their support if phenomenal and they are open to suggestions for new features. It is also a heavy duty radio; looks and feels like a Motorola handheld.  Very rugged.

Scanning: As the world relentlessly marches on to a digital future, many businesses and commercial interests have migrated their legacy analogue FM two way radio systems to DMR. If portable DMR reception is desired, an entry level DMR transceiver from TYT or Radioddity will do the job very well – to keep yourself on the correct side of the law, you should disable any transmit capabilities of these transceivers unless you have a current amateur license.

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